Lung Diseases Affecting the Airways

The trachea (windpipe) branches into tubes called bronchi, which in turn branch to become progressively smaller tubes throughout the lungs. Diseases that affect the airways include:

Lung Diseases Affecting the Chest Wall

The chest wall also plays an important role in breathing. Muscles connect the ribs to each other, helping the chest to expand. The diaphragm descends with each breath in, also causing chest expansion. Obesity hypoventilation syndrome: Extra weight on the chest and abdomen makes it difficult for the chest to expand. Serious breathing problems can result. Neuromuscular disorders: Poor function in the…

Lung Diseases Affecting the Pleura

The pleura is a thin lining that surrounds the lung and lines the inside of the chest wall. A tiny layer of fluid allows the pleura on the lung’s surface to slide along the chest wall with each breath. Lung diseases of the pleura include: Pleural effusion: Fluid collects in the normally tiny pleura space…

Lung Diseases Affecting Blood Vessels

The right side of the heart receives low-oxygen blood from the veins. It pumps blood into the lungs through the pulmonary arteries. These blood vessels can suffer from disease, as well. Pulmonary embolism (PE): A blood clot(usually in a deep leg vein, deep vein thrombosis) breaks off, travels to the heart, and is pumped into the lungs. The clot lodges in a…

Lung Diseases Affecting the Interstitium

The interstitium is the microscopically thin, delicate lining between the lungs’ air sacs (alveoli). Tiny blood vessels run through the interstitium and allow gas exchange between the alveoli and the blood. Various lung diseases affect the interstitium: Interstitial lung disease (ILD): A broad collection of lung conditions affecting the interstitium. Sarcoidosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and autoimmune disease are among the…

Can Surgery to Remove Cancer Spread the Disease?

A new study, published in the April 2018 issue of Science Translational Medicine, explores a long-standing question in the oncology field — how the wound-healing process following cancer surgery may influence the growth and spread of residual cancer cells. Studies show that breast cancer metastasis (cancer that has spread from the site of the original tumor) sometimes occurs 12 to…

Global Burden of Cancer

Cancer is a major burden of disease worldwide. Each year, tens of millions of people are diagnosed with cancer around the world, and more than half of the patients eventually die from it. In many countries, cancer ranks the second most common cause of death following cardiovascular diseases. With significant improvement in treatment and prevention…

Exercise for people at risk for or with high blood pressure

It’s safe to exercise if you’re at risk for high blood pressure (previously called prehypertension) or with high blood pressure (hypertension). In fact, regular exercise can help you keep your blood pressure in check. If you’re at risk for or have hypertension, speak to your doctor about the safest way to exercise. This may involve: using medication…

Effects of exercise on blood pressure

Aerobic activities such as swimming, cycling, and running put additional demands on your cardiovascular system. Your muscles need more oxygen than they do when you’re at rest, so you have to breathe more quickly. Your heart starts to pump harder and faster to circulate blood to deliver oxygen to your muscles. As a result, systolic…

Common signs of heart attack and stroke

A heart attack occurs when heart disease has reached the point where blood stops flowing to the muscle of the heart. The most common sign of heart attack in men is chest discomfort that includes squeezing, pressure, or pain. It used to be thought that only chest pain was a sign of heart attack, but it’s possible…